The Skating System consists of a set of ELEVEN rules. Each rule applies to a specific step in the process of marking and then tabulating the results. There is a systematic progression from one to the next, until you end up with the final result.

A judge’s view of what they see on the floor in front of them is their view and their view alone. Human nature almost guarantees that there will be an element of subjectivity. That is why there are normally an odd number of judges, 3, 5, 7, 11 . . . To minimize the skew effect of a single judge’s marks and the possibility of couples being tied. The Skating System in no way manipulates the marks of a judge; it neither introduces marks nor deletes marks. The starting point for the Skating System is the judges mark sheet. It may happen that a judge has duplicated a number or a number is illegible. In all cases the sheet is passed to the Chairman of Adjudicators to correct the error with the judge concerned.

The first four rules apply specifically to the competition judges.

No | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | Total |

10 | X | X | X | X | 4 * | |||

11 | X | X | X | X | X | X | 6 | |

12 | X | X | X | X | 4 * | |||

13 | X | X | X | 3 | ||||

14 | X | X | X | X | 4 * | |||

15 | X | X | X | X | X | X | 6 | |

16 | 0 | |||||||

17 | X | X | X | X | X | X | 6 | |

18 | X | X | X | X | X | X | X | 7 |

19 | X | X | 2 |

A preliminary round is any round in a section excluding the final. Examples are round 1, round 2, quarterfinal, and semi-final. The judges do not have to mark the competitors in any order. They simply indicate on their mark sheet the couples they wish to see in the next round. The judge MUST ONLY mark as many couples as the Chairman requests. As an example in a semi-final of eleven dancers the Chairman may request that six couples be recalled to the final. Each judge should then recall six couples for each dance in the section.

The couples that advance to the next round are simply those with the most callback marks. The scrutineer will add the marks together for each couple from all judges to find out who has advanced to the next round.

It is not an uncommon occurrence for the scrutineer to not be able to call back the number of competitors requested by the Chairman. Several couples may have received the same number of callback marks. The judges can all have provided the correct number of marks but the result just does not work out. Take a semi-final of 11 couples with 6 couples requested for the final.

Couples 11, 15, 17, and 18 are the couples with the highest marks. Couples 10, 12, and 14 all have 4 callback marks. The results therefore mean that 4 couples or 7 couples can be recalled, not the 6 that were requested. The decision passes to the Chairman as to how many couples are recalled. The Chairman alone makes the decision, not the scrutineer.

A final round of a section can contain a maximum of eight couples. If more than eight couples have been recalled from a semi-final then a further preliminary round must be danced. In some cases even a round with eight couples must be danced as a semi-final. Again the Chairman alone makes the decision. Often a particular section will be danced as a straight final, meaning that there were not enough couples entered to require a preliminary round. Also in this situation organizers typically award, say, only 3 prizes for a section of 6 couples. The judges are still required to allocate a place to each and every couple on the floor.

Typically each judge has a different opinion as to the placement of the finalists. That is why we need the Skating System and scrutinizers.

Since the final round is intended to determine final placements a judge is not allowed to tie any couples.

After applying the Skating System to the judge’s marks an unbreakable tie may result. This is not because the judge tied the couples but through the method by which the marks are tabulated. A possible cause of this is that the opinions of the judges differ because the ability of the couples varies wildly or are very similar to each other. Both of these extremes result in no clear-cut winner, runner-up, etc.

The remaining seven rules are the ones that determine how the final result is calculated. It starts of simply and then gets progressively more complicated. The Skating System uses two concepts to arrive at a final result. The first is “**majority**” and the second is “**overall performance**.” A couple must convince a majority of the judges to mark them to win the dance. Furthermore they must achieve this in a majority of the dances making up the section for them to win the section. Obviously this does not always happen. The Skating System rules therefore define how to tabulate the results when there is no clear-cut winner either for an individual dance or for the section as a whole. The Skating System attempts to always reward overall performance. As we progress through these seven rules you will begin to understand why a couple that does not win any individual dance can win the section. Conversely a couple can win an individual dance and may only be placed 4^{th} in the section.

Rules 5, 6, 7, and 8 apply to tabulating the results for the individual dances in a section or for a single-dance section, such as seen in Freestyle.

The Skating System is based on the marks a couple receives from a majority of judges. The first and simplest step is to ascertain what makes up a majority. A few examples should suffice, the majority of 3 is 2; the majority of 5 is 3; the majority of 7 is 4, and so on.

We now tabulate each couple's marks in the final. The next step is to place the winner by inspecting the marks for the number of **1**^{st}**places**. It is important to note that in this rule we simply count the number of places, we do not add them together. A couple’s results are 1,1,2,3,1,2,1; they have 4 1^{st} places.

The couple who has received the majority of 1^{st} place marks is the winner of that dance and their marks have no further impact on the tabulation process. The next step is to determine who is to be placed second. This follows a similar process. In this case, however, we count the number of “**2**^{nd}** place and higher marks**” for the remaining couples. The next step is to determine who is to be placed third. We, similarly, count the number of “**3**^{rd}** place and higher marks**” for each of the remaining couples. This process is repeated until all couples have been placed.

In the following simple example the positions are awarded as follows:

- There are 5 judges so the majority is three.
- Count 1
^{st}places. #51 has 4 first-place marks and #52 has 1. The remaining couples have no first-place marks. #51 has attained a majority of first-place marks and is therefore is placed first.

Waltz | ||||||||||||||

Couple | Judges Marks | Places | Result | |||||||||||

A | B | C | D | E | 1 | 1-2 | 1-3 | 1-4 | 1-5 | 1-6 | 1-7 | 1-8 | ||

51 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 2 | 1 | 4 | — | — | — | — | — | — | — | 1 |

52 | 4 | 2 | 2 | 1 | 2 | 1 | 4 | — | — | — | — | — | — | 2 |

53 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 5 | 4 | — | — | 3 | — | — | — | — | — | 3 |

54 | 2 | 4 | 5 | 4 | 3 | — | 1 | 2 | 4 | — | — | — | — | 4 |

55 | 5 | 6 | 4 | 3 | 5 | — | — | 1 | 2 | 4 | — | — | — | 5 |

55 | 6 | 5 | 6 | 6 | 6 | — | — | — | — | 1 | 5 | — | — | 6 |

Although #52 attained a first-place mark they have not been placed yet and therefore stay in the tabulation.

- Count “2
^{nd}and higher” (1^{st}and 2^{nd}) place-marks awarded to the remaining couples to place the 2^{nd}position. #52 has 4 “2^{nd}and higher” place marks and #54 has 1. #52 is therefore awarded the second place having achieved a majority of “2^{nd}place and higher” marks. - The same process is followed for “3
^{rd}and higher” to place the 3^{rd}place and so on to the 6^{th}place.

Rule 6 is a simple follow-on to Rule 5. I am sure in the previous example you very quickly asked, “Well, what happens if more than one couple has a majority?”

The position is allocated according to which couple has the **greater majority.** A simple case of the more the better! All couples with the majority are placed before you consider the remaining couples.

There are 7 judges so the majority is 4.

Waltz | ||||||||||||||||

Couple | Judges | Places | Result | |||||||||||||

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | 1 | 1-2 | 1-3 | 1-4 | 1-5 | 1-6 | 1-7 | 1-8 | ||

61 | 1 | 1 | 2 | 1 | 4 | 2 | 1 | 4 | — | — | — | — | — | — | — | 1 |

62 | 6 | 2 | 1 | 5 | 2 | 1 | 2 | 2 | 5 | — | — | — | — | — | — | 2 |

63 | 2 | 4 | 3 | 3 | 6 | 3 | 3 | 1 | 5 | — | — | — | — | — | 3 | |

64 | 3 | 3 | 5 | 2 | 1 | 5 | 4 | 1 | 2 | 4 | — | — | — | — | — | 4 |

65 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 4 | 3 | 6 | 5 | — | — | — | 3 | 5 | — | — | — | 5 |

66 | 5 | 6 | 4 | 6 | 5 | 4 | 6 | — | — | — | 2 | 4 | — | — | — | 6 |

- 1
^{st}and 2^{nd}places are awarded based on a simple majority (Rule 5). - When we count “3
^{rd}and higher places” both #63 and #64 have achieved a majority. The greater majority has been attained by #63 and is, therefore, awarded 3^{rd}place with #64 awarded 4^{th}place. - Be a little bit careful now! We are about to award 5
^{th}place but we are going to tabulate the next column on the work-sheet which is “4^{th}place and higher.” Neither of the two remaining couples have a majority so we move to the “5^{th}place and higher” column. #65 has 5 “4^{th}place and higher” marks and #66 has 4. #65 is, therefore, awarded 5^{th}place and #66 6^{th}place.

The important thing to remember here with Rule 6 is that more than one place can be awarded while working in one column of the work sheet. The placement being assigned may not coincide with the column/marks that you are working with. The second thing to remember is that **all** the couples assigned a place must have achieved a majority when they are assigned a position.

**Now is** the time to add together the place-marks and not just count them.

Let’s work the example.

- Seven judges so the majority is 4.
- #71 is awarded 1
^{st}place by virtue of a majority of “1^{st}place marks.” We now move to the second column, looking for “2^{nd}place and higher” (Rule 5), or even different majorities (Rule 6). We find, however that there are two couples, #72 and #73, who have an equal majority of “2^{nd}and higher” place marks. **Add**(not count!) the place-marks for each couple that has the majority. Adding the four “second and higher” place marks for #72, (2+2+1+1) gives a total of 6. Doing the same for #73 gives a total of 7.- The couple with the lowest total (sum) is awarded the position. Therefore, #72 is awarded 2
^{nd}place and #73 is awarded 3^{rd}place.

This process continues until all couples with the equal majority have been awarded positions. You then go back to the remaining couples in the section. We continue with the “3^{rd} place and higher” column to award 4^{th} position, even though we are working in the “3^{rd} and higher” column.

OK! Next question, “Same majority, same sum . . .?”

Waltz | ||||||||||||||||

Couple | Judges | Places | Result | |||||||||||||

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | 1 | 1-2 | 1-3 | 1-4 | 1-5 | 1-6 | 1-7 | 1-8 | ||

71 | 3 | 1 | 6 | 1 | 1 | 2 | 1 | 4 | — | — | — | — | — | — | — | 1 |

72 | 2 | 2 | 1 | 5 | 3 | 1 | 3 | 2 | 4 (6) | — | — | — | — | — | — | 2 |

73 | 1 | 5 | 4 | 2 | 2 | 6 | 2 | 1 | 4 (7) | — | — | — | — | — | — | 3 |

74 | 5 | 4 | 2 | 4 | 6 | 5 | 4 | — | 1 | 1 | 4 (14) | 6 | — | — | — | 4 |

75 | 4 | 6 | 3 | 3 | 5 | 4 | 6 | — | — | 2 | 4 (14) | 5 | — | — | — | 5 |

76 | 6 | 3 | 5 | 6 | 4 | 3 | 5 | — | — | 2 | 3 | 5 | — | — | — | 6 |

Continuing with the example.

- Count the number of “3
^{rd}and higher.” None of the three remaining couples, #74, #85, and #76, have achieved a majority. Moving on to the “4^{th}and higher” column we find that #74 and #75 have an equal majority whereas #76 does not. - We now focus only on the two couples #74 and #75 who have an equal majority. Adding the place marks together they both have an equal total (sum) of 14. The problem is still not resolved.
- As far as “4
^{th}place and higher” is concerned the two couples #74 and #75 are still tied. We, therefore, move to the next column “5^{th}and higher” to try and break the deadlock. Counting the “5^{th}and higher “ place marks we find that #74 has a majority of 6 and #75 a majority of 5. #74 is awarded the 4^{th}place by virtue of the larger majority, (effectively back to Rule 6) and #75 is awarded 5^{th}position. - We now move back to the “5
^{th}and higher” column for #76. Counting their “5^{th}and higher” place marks gives a count of 5, a majority, and they are therefore awarded 6^{th}place.

The third part of Rule 7 defines a tie. There are situations where no matter how many rules you apply you cannot separate the couples. In the event of two couples having an equal majority and also an equal sum, we go to the next column, FOR THESE COUPLES ONLY. If the next column still gives us an equal majority and sum we go to the next column, and the next until we reach the last possible column. For 6 couples this will be “6^{th} and higher,” for 7 couples “7^{th} and higher,” and for 8 couples “8^{th} and higher.” Remember that if you have more than 8 couples you will not be running a final!

If we still have a tie at the last column then each couple is awarded the average or mean of the positions that we are working with. If we have two couples and we are looking to place 3^{rd} and 4^{th} each couple will be awarded the 3½^{th} position, (3 + 4 = 7 ÷ 2 = 3½). For a 3-way tie for 3^{rd}, 4^{th}, and 5^{th} positions, each couple is placed 4^{th}, (3 + 4 + 5 = 12 ÷3 = 4).

This describes the mathematical methodology that the scrutineer uses to calculate the results. When the compere announces the results, they are all listed as the highest of the positions involved in the tie. In the example above the first two couples are announced as being tied for 3^{rd} place. In the second, the three couples are tied for 3^{rd} place.

Rule 7 is as complicated as it gets when working with the individual dances.

After Rule 7, Rule 8 is simplicity itself. If no couple achieves a majority of 1^{st} place marks then you move on to the “2^{nd} place and higher” column. If there is no majority there you continue onto the next column and the next until one or more couples achieve a majority.

When one or more couples are found with a majority, subject to Rule 6 and Rule 7 the 1^{st} place is awarded. We then continue in a similar manner to allocate all other positions.

- There are 7 judges so the majority is 4.
- We are looking for 1
^{st}place marks. No couple has a majority.

Waltz | ||||||||||||||||

Couple | Judges | Places | Result | |||||||||||||

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | 1 | 1-2 | 1-3 | 1-4 | 1-5 | 1-6 | 1-7 | 1-8 | ||

81 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 2 | 5 | 2 | 3 | — | 2 | 6 | — | — | — | — | — | 1 |

82 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 3 | 2 | 3 | 2 | — | 2 | 4 | — | — | — | — | — | 2 |

83 | 2 | 2 | 6 | 6 | 4 | 1 | 4 | 1 | 3 | 3 | 5 | — | — | — | — | 3 |

84 | 1 | 6 | 1 | 5 | 1 | 4 | 6 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 4 | — | — | — | — | 4 |

85 | 5 | 5 | 5 | 1 | 3 | 6 | 1 | 2 | 2 | 3 | 3 | 6 | — | — | — | 5 |

86 | 6 | 1 | 2 | 4 | 6 | 5 | 5 | 1 | 2 | 2 | 3 | 5 | — | — | — | 6 |

We move on to the “2^{nd} and higher” column. No couple has a majority in that column either. Moving on to “3^{rd} and higher” we find that couples #81 and #82 have a majority of 6 and 4 “3^{rd}and higher” place marks each. Subject to Rule 6 we award 1^{st}place to #81 and 2^{nd} place to #82.

- We are now looking to award 3
^{rd}place. Tallying the “4^{th}and higher” column we find that both couples #83 and #84 have a majority of “4^{th}and higher” place marks. Again using Rule 6 3^{rd}place is awarded to #83 and 4^{th}place to #84. - We are now looking to award 5
^{th}place. Tallying the “5^{th}place and higher” column both #85 and #86 have achieved a majority. Rule 6 places #85 in 5^{th}position and #86 in 6^{th}.

Remember the column that you are working with may not coincide with the position you are looking to award.

**So, with Rule 5, Rule 6, Rule 7, and Rule 8 you can work out the results for a single dance with simple majorities, multiple majorities, tied majorities, and no majorities!**

We now move on to Rule 9, Rule 10, and Rule 11. These apply to multiple-dance sections as found in Ballroom and Latin competitions. It covers the whole gambit from Bronze sections containing two dances, Waltz and Quickstep or Cha-Cha-Cha and Jive to the Championship sections of five dances and the combined styles such as six-, eight-, and ten-dance sections.

All of the results, and only the results not the individual place-marks, are transferred into a new table called the “Final Summary.” These results are then simply added together, not counted, to give a total. The couple with the lowest total is awarded 1^{st}place in the section; the next highest total is awarded 2^{nd}place, and so on until all couples have been placed.

Final Summary | |||||||

Couple | Dances | Total | Result | ||||

W | T | V | F | Q | |||

91 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 5 | 1 |

92 | 4 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 12 | 2 |

93 | 2 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 14 | 3 |

94 | 5 | 5 | 6 | 4 | 5 | 25 | 4 |

95 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 7 | 7 | 26 | 5 |

96 | 6 | 7 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 28 | 6 |

97 | 7 | 6 | 7 | 6 | 4 | 30 | 7 |

98 | 8 | 8 | 8 | 8 | 8 | 40 | 8 |

After having transferred the individual dance results to the “Final Summary” we see that #91 has the lowest total of 5 and is therefore awarded 1^{st} place. #92 has the next lowest total and is awarded 2^{nd} place. We continue in this way for all couples with #98 being placed 8^{th}.

In the event that two or more couples have an equal total for the position under review, then there is a tie for that place. We use Rule 10 and Rule 11 to break the tie for multiple-dance sections in the same way that as we did for the individual dances and a single dance section.

#11 and #12 are placed 1^{st}and 2^{nd}, respectively. #13 and #14 both have the same total and cannot be placed; we need Rule 10 and Rule 11 to break the tie. They will be awarded 3^{rd} and4^{th} places. #15 has the next lowest total and is placed 5^{th}. #16 and #17 are tied and require Rule 10 and Rule 11 to break the tie for 6^{th} place. With the largest total of 30, #18 is placed 8^{th}.

Final Summary | ||||||

Couple | Dances | Total | Result | |||

S | C | R | J | |||

11 | 1 | 2 | 1 | 1 | 5 | 1 |

12 | 2 | 1 | 2 | 2 | 7 | 2 |

13 | 3 | 4 | 3 | 4 | 14 | ? |

14 | 4 | 3 | 4 | 3 | 14 | ? |

15 | 6 | 6 | 5 | 7 | 24 | 5 |

16 | 5 | 5 | 7 | 8 | 25 | ? |

17 | 7 | 7 | 6 | 5 | 25 | ? |

18 | 8 | 8 | 8 | 6 | 30 | 8 |

You are about to hit the wall! Rule 10 is the most involved of all the Rules. There are several sections to Rule 10. Let’s try and be simple and take it one section at a time.

One important point, before we start. Whilst working within Rule 10 we are not looking for the majority of anything. It is another case of the more the better!

Final Summary | |||||

Couple | Dances | Total | Result | ||

W | T | F | |||

101 | 1 | 1 | 3 | 5 | 1 |

102 | 2 | 2 | 1 | 5 | 2 |

103 | 6 | 4 | 2 | 12 | 3 |

104 | 5 | 3 | 4 | 12 | 4 |

105 | 4 | 5 | 5 | 14 | 5 |

106 | 3 | 6 | 6 | 15 | 6 |

- There is a tie for 1
^{st}place under Rule 9 for the section. You must now look, in the Final Summary, to see which of the tied couples has won the most 1^{st}places (won most dances). Couples #101 and #102 both have a total of 5. However, #101 has achieved 2 1^{st}places whilst #102 has only 1 (in the Final Summary). #101 is therefore awarded overall 1^{st}place and #102 overall 2^{nd}place. - It is important to note that if more than two couples are tied for 1
^{st}place then after one of the couples has been awarded the overall 1^{st}place the remaining couples are actually tied for 2^{nd}place. You must therefore count “2^{nd}and higher” places for the remaining couples to try and award the overall 2^{nd}place. If you have a tie, the couples all have the same number of places, then, as before, you add the places together to provide a total. The couple with the lowest total is awarded the place and the remaining couple is awarded the next place. - Here the similarity, with the previous single-dance rules, ends. If the two couples have the same number of places and the same total you do not go to the lower places to break the tie.
**At this point the couples are tied under Rule 10 and you must apply Rule 11 to break the tie**.

#101, #102, #103, and #104 all have a total of 12 and therefore must be considered for 1^{st} place. #101 has more 1^{st}places (2) than the other and is therefore awarded the overall 1^{st} place. The remaining couples are now tied for 2^{nd} place, so we must count “2^{nd}and higher” places to award the position. #102 has more “2^{nd} and higher” places than the others and is therefore awarded the overall2^{nd} place, (even though the couple did achieve any 1^{st}places). We are now left with #103 and #104 to be considered for the overall 3^{rd}place. We now count “3^{rd} place and higher”. #103 (3) has more than #104 (2) and is therefore awarded the overall 3^{rd} place. #104 being the only remaining couple in the Rule 10 is automatically placed overall 4^{th}.

Final Summary | ||||||

Couple | Dances | Total | Result | |||

W | T | F | Q | |||

101 | 1 | 6 | 4 | 1 | 12 | 1 |

102 | 6 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 12 | 2 |

103 | 2 | 1 | 6 | 3 | 12 | 3 |

104 | 3 | 4 | 1 | 4 | 12 | 4 |

105 | 5 | 3 | 5 | 5 | 18 | 5 |

106 | 4 | 5 | 3 | 6 | 18 | 6 |

Having placed the first 4 places we must now award 5^{th} place. #105 and #106 have the same total so we count “5^{th} and higher” places for the two couples. #105 has the most (4) and is awarded the overall 5^{th} place. #106 as the last in this Rule 10 is awarded 6^{th} place.

It is important to notice that although we had four couples with the same total under the Rule 10 we only placed one couple at a time. Rule 10 is repeatedly applied to place each couple. Rule 10 for 1^{st}place (count the 1^{st} places), Rule 10 for second place (count “2^{nd}and higher” places), Rule 10 for third place (count “3^{rd} and higher” places), and Rule 10 yet again for 4^{th} place (count “4^{th} and higher” places).

If you have a tie under Rule 10 and cannot award places then you apply Rule 11. The actual process, however, is to temporarily leave those couples and places that you cannot award and continue with the remaining couples and positions under Rule 10. You then go back to the tied couples and apply Rule 11. This keeps the process structured and logical, believe me!

In summary you will have a tie under Rule 10 and need Rule 11 if:

- When allocating the overall 1
^{st}place all the tied couples have the same number of 1^{st}places for the individual dances or if none of them have any 1^{st}places. - For all the other positions if the couples have the same number of places for the position under review and the totals of those places is the same you have a tie. You will also have a tie if none of the couples have any places that are the same or higher than the position under review; you are looking to place 3
^{rd}and none of the tied couples have any “3^{rd}or higher” places in the Final Summary.

A final and very important point to remember. You need to know how to handle the positions in the Final Summary that include fractions such as 2½, and 3½. When evaluating place marks in the Final Summary table a fraction is considered to be a place mark for the next highest whole number. 2½ is viewed as 3 and 3½ is viewed as 4. We cannot leave this as simple as that. If when you have considered the place marks and the couples in the tie have the same number of place marks then, as above, you must add the place marks together to give a total. When you do this you include the fractions at face value!

Let’s try another example to sort it all out.

- #102 and #107 both have a total of 8. #102 has the most 1
^{st}places and is awarded overall 1^{st}place. With only two in the tie #107 is awarded overall 2^{nd}place. - #105 and #106 have
the next highest total of

- We are now trying
to place overall 3
^{rd}place and must therefore count “3^{rd}and higher” places. #105 has 3 and #106 has 2. #105 is therefore awarded overall 3^{rd}place and #106, the only other couple in the tie, is awarded overall 4^{th}place. - #101 and #103 both have the next highest total of 29. We are trying to place 5
^{th}place and must therefore count “5^{th}and higher” positions. They are both tied with two “5^{th}and higher” places. We must now add them to get a total. Both have the same total of 10. These two couples are therefore tied under Rule 10 and need to go to Rule 11. They will be awarded overall 5^{th}and 6^{th}places, but we will leave them for the moment. - We now move to 7
^{th}place. On inspection we see that there is only #104 with the highest total of 32. That couple is therefore awarded overall 7^{th}place.

Final Summary | |||||||

Couple | Dances | Total | Result | ||||

W | T | V | F | Q | |||

101 | 7 | 6 | 5 | 6 | 5 | 29 | R11 |

102 | 1 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 1 | 8 | 1 |

103 | 5 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 6 | 29 | R11 |

104 | 6 | 7 | 7 | 5 | 7 | 32 | 7 |

105 | 4 | 4 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 17 | 3 |

106 | 3 | 2 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 17 | 4 |

107 | 2 | 1 | 1 | 2 | 2 | 8 | 2 |

Rule 11 is fairly simple to apply. Effectively you take all of the place marks given to the tied couples and process them as if it was a single dance. So if you have two dances in the section, say the Waltz and Quickstep and seven judges, in a Rule 11 all 14 place marks will be treated as if it was one dance.

There has to be a sting in the tail, with Rule 11 it is when more than two couples are tied under Rule 10 and move to Rule 11. Rule 11 is applied to all tied couples and the “best” couple is awarded the overall placing under review. The remaining couples in the tie then revert to Rule 10. If there is a tie under Rule 10 for the remaining couples we go forward again to Rule 11. After awarding the next overall position to the “best” couple this time around we revert back again to Rule 10 for the remaining tied couples. This procedure of Rule 10 followed by Rule 11 is repeated until all of the tied couples have been awarded an overall placing. It is important to note that as with Rule 10, Rule 11 only places one couple at a time. The only time when two overall places are awarded is if there are two couples in the tie or you are placing the last two couples in the tie.

The answer to your question is Yes! You can still have a tie under Rule 11. At this point we, the scrutinizers, throw in the towel; there is no Rule 12! You have an unbreakable tie. To get rid of the problem you pass it to the Chairman of Adjudicators to decide. Typically if the tie is for 1^{st} place a dance-off takes place between the tied couples. For the minor places the couples are, typically, awarded the tied position.

Having initially stated that Rule 11 is simple lets work through an example.

- #111 is the outright winner as the only couple to acquire any 1
^{st}places. They are awarded the overall 1^{st}place. - #115 has the next lowest total and is therefore awarded overall 2
^{nd}place. - #112 and #114 have the next lowest total and are tied for overall 3rd place. They both have one 3
^{rd}place, the position under review. WE do not go to lower positions to break the tie, so they are tied under Rule 10 and must go to Rule 11. All marks for both dances are considered to be for one dance. We are looking to place overall 3^{rd}and start by counting the “3^{rd}and higher” places. Both #112 and #114 have 7 “3^{rd}and higher” places. We move to “4^{th}and higher” to try and split the tie. #112 has 11 “4^{th}and higher” places and #114 has 13. #114 has the most and is awarded the overall 3^{rd}place with #112 being awarded the overall 4^{th}place. (Whilst in Rule 11 we actually apply Rule 5 through Rule 8 to the marks for each tied couple.) - #113 has the next lowest total of 10 and is awarded overall 5
^{th}place.

Waltz | ||||||||||||||||

Couple | Judges | Places | Result | |||||||||||||

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | 1 | 1-2 | 1-3 | 1-4 | 1-5 | 1-6 | 1-7 | 1-8 | ||

111 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 7 | — | — | — | — | — | — | — | 1 |

112 | 5 | 3 | 5 | 4 | 3 | 3 | 3 | — | — | 4 | — | — | — | — | — | 3 |

113 | 4 | 5 | 4 | 5 | 5 | 5 | 4 | — | — | — | 3 | 7 | — | — | — | 5 |

114 | 3 | 4 | 3 | 3 | 4 | 4 | 5 | — | — | 3 | 6 | — | — | — | — | 4 |

115 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | — | 7 | — | — | — | — | — | — | 2 |

Quickstep | |||||||||||||||||||||||||||

Couples | Judges | Places | Result | ||||||||||||||||||||||||

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | 1 | 1-2 | 1-3 | 1-4 | 1-5 | 1-6 | 1-7 |
1-8 | |||||||||||||

111 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 2 | 1 | 1 | 6 | — | — | — | — | — | — | — | 1 | |||||||||||

112 | 5 | 3 | 3 | 4 | 3 | 4 | 4 | — | — | 3 | 6 | — | — | — | — | 4 | |||||||||||

113 | 4 | 5 | 5 | 5 | 5 | 5 | 5 | — | — | — | — | 7 | — | — | — | 5 | |||||||||||

114 | 3 | 4 | 4 | 3 | 4 | 3 | 3 | — | — | 4 | — | — | — | — | — | 3 | |||||||||||

115 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 1 | 2 | 2 | — | 7 | — | — | — | — | — | — | 2 |

Final Summary |
Rule 11 | Result |
|||||||||||||||||||||

Couple |
Dances |
Total |
Result |
No | Places |
||||||||||||||||||

W | Q | 3 | 4 | ||||||||||||||||||||

111 | 1 | 1 | 2 | 1 | 112 | 7 | 11 | ||||||||||||||||

112 | 3 | 4 | 7 | 4 | 114 | 7 | 13 | ||||||||||||||||

113 | 5 | 5 | 10 | 5 | |||||||||||||||||||

114 | 4 | 3 | 7 | 3 | |||||||||||||||||||

115 | 2 | 2 | 4 | 2 |

If you got this far then you are very committed to understanding this or plain bored and have nothing better to do. So just to make sure that you get your moneys worth, let’s roll it all together, throw it into the pot and see what comes out with one last example. Don’t panic it only contains two dances.

** Final Example **

Foxtrot | ||||||||||||||||

Couple | Judges | Places | Result | |||||||||||||

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | 1 | 1-2 | 1-3 | 1-4 | 1-5 | 1-6 | 1-7 | 1-8 | ||

111 | 2 | 5 | 6 | 6 | 4 | — | 1 | 1 | 2 | 3 (11) | — | — | — | 4 | ||

112 | 6 | 8 | 1 | 5 | 7 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 2 | 3 | — | — | 6 | ||

113 | 8 | 3 | 2 | 8 | 8 | — | 1 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 5 | 8 | ||

114 | 7 | 4 | 3 | 3 | 2 | — | 1 | 3 | — | — | — | — | — | 3 | ||

115 | 1 | 1 | 5 | 2 | 6 | 2 | 3 (4) | 3 (4) | 3 | — | — | — | — | 2 | ||

116 | 4 | 2 | 4 | 1 | 1 | 2 | 3 (4) | 3 (4) | 5 | — | — | — | — | 1 | ||

117 | 5 | 7 | 8 | 7 | 3 | — | — | 1 | 1 | 2 | 2 | 4 | — | 7 | ||

118 | 3 | 6 | 7 | 4 | 5 | — | — | 1 | 2 | 3 (12) | — | — | — | 5 |

Tango | ||||||||||||||||

Couple | Judges | Places | Result | |||||||||||||

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | 1 | 1-2 | 1-3 | 1-4 | 1-5 | 1-6 | 1-7 | 1-8 | ||

111 | 3 | 6 | 5 | 5 | 4 | — | — | 1 | 2 | 4 | — | — | — | 5 | ||

112 | 7 | 8 | 3 | 8 | 7 | — | — | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 3 | — | 8 | ||

113 | 8 | 5 | 4 | 6 | 8 | — | — | — | 1 | 2 | 3 | — | — | 6 | ||

114 | 6 | 3 | 1 | 3 | 3 | 1 | 1 | 4 | — | — | — | — | — | 3 | ||

115 | 1 | 1 | 2 | 4 | 5 | 2 | 3 (4) | — | — | — | — | — | — | 1 | ||

116 | 5 | 2 | 6 | 2 | 2 | 3 (6) | — | — | — | — | — | — | 2 | |||

117 | 2 | 7 | 7 | 7 | 1 | 1 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 5 | — | 7 | ||

118 | 4 | 4 | 8 | 1 | 6 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 3 | — | — | — | — | 4 |

Final Summary |
|||||||||

Couple | Dances | Total | Result | ||||||

F | T | ||||||||

111 | 4 | 5 | 9 | 4 | |||||

112 | 6 | 8 | 14 | 6 | |||||

113 | 8 | 6 | 14 | 7 | |||||

114 | 3 | 3 | 6 | 3 | |||||

115 | 2 | 1 | 3 | 1 | |||||

116 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 2 | |||||

117 | 7 | 7 | 14 | 8 | |||||

118 | 5 | 4 | 9 | 5 |

Rule 11 | Result | |||||||

Couple | 1 | 2 | ||||||

115 | 4 | 6 (8) | 1 | |||||

116 | 2 | 6 (10) | 2 | |||||

4 | 5 | |||||||

111 | 4 | 7 | 4 | |||||

118 | 5 | 6 | 5 | |||||

6 | 7 | |||||||

112 | 4 | 7 | 6 | |||||

113 | 5 | 5 | 7 |

**Final Example
**

**Solution**

1. There are five judges for the dances. The majority is therefore 3

**Foxtrot**

- Count the number of 1
^{st}places for each couple. The total is in the “1^{st}” column. There is no majority so move to the “2^{nd}and higher” column. - #115 and #116 both have the same total of 3 “2
^{nd}and higher” marks, which is a majority. The sum of these 3 marks is also equal (4). To break the tie we must move to the “3^{rd}and higher” column. - #115 and #116 still have the same tie as neither achieved any 3
^{rd}place marks from the judges. Counting the “4^{th}and higher” column we find that #115 has 3 “4^{th}and higher” marks and #116 has 5. Both of these are a majority. By virtue of the larger majority #116 is awarded 1^{st}place and, being only a two-couple tie, #115 is awarded 2^{nd}place. - We must now go back to the “3
^{rd}and higher” column for the remaining couples. #114 has a majority of 3 “3^{rd}and higher” place marks and is given 3^{rd}place. - Moving onto the “4
^{th}and higher” column for the remaining couples we find that none of them has a majority, so we move straight on to the “5^{th}and higher” column.

**Note: DO NOT GET CONFUSED by the marks for #115 and #116 in the “3**^{rd}** and higher” and “4**^{th}** and higher” columns. They are part of placing those two couples 1**^{st}** and 2**^{nd}** and are not included in any further inspections.**

- Counting “5
^{th}and higher” we find that #111 and #118 both have a majority of 3 “5^{th}and higher” place marks. The sum of these 3 place marks is lower for #111 (11) than for #118 (12). As a result of the lower sum #111 is given 4^{th}place and #118 gets 5^{th}place. - We now inspect the “6
^{th}and higher” column for the remaining three couples. #112 has a majority of 3 place marks and is placed 6^{th}. - In like manner #117 has a majority of 4 “7
^{th}and higher” place marks and is given 7^{th}place. - #113 is the only couple left and is given 8
^{th}place. For correctness you should take the trouble to enter the place marks for #113 in the

"8th and higher" column. The work sheet is then 100% correct and complete.

11. Finally copy the results into the “F” column in the Final Summary work sheet.

**Tango**

A similar process is followed for the Tango. In summary:

- #115 takes 1
^{st}place because of a lower sum of “2^{nd}and higher” place marks. It is a two-couple tie with #116 who is automatically placed 2^{nd}. - #114 takes 3
^{rd}place, having a sole majority of “4^{th}and higher” place marks. - Likewise #118 is given 4
^{th}place with a sole majority of 3 “4^{th}and higher” place marks. - A sole majority of “5
^{th}and higher” place marks gives #111 5^{th}place. - Next is #113 in 6
^{th}place with a sole majority of “6^{th}and higher” place marks. - When the “7
^{th}and higher” column is inspected, #117 has a greater majority (5) of “7^{th}and higher” place marks than #112 (3). #117 is, therefore, placed 7^{th}and #112 is placed 8^{th}. - Copy the results into the “T” column in the Final Summary work sheet.

- Each couple’s positions are now added to give a total. In this example they are 9, 14, 14, 6, 3, 3, 14, 9
- #115 and #116 both have the lowest total of 3 and are considered for 1
^{st}place. Each has won one 1^{st}place and are, therefore, tied under Rule 10. We must use Rule 11 to break the tie. Leave them for the moment. These two couples will eventually take 1^{st}and 2^{nd}place - The next lowest total is #114 with 6. #114 can immediately be awarded 3
^{rd}place. - We must now allocate 4
^{th}place. #111 and #118 both have a total of 9 and the sums are equal at 9. They are also tied under Rule 10. Rule 11 here we come again, but leave it for a while!

23. We have three remaining couples, #112, #113, and #117 each with a total of 14. We are looking to allocate 6^{th} place. #117 has not achieved any 6^{th} places and therefore immediately drops out, being awarded 8^{th} place. #112 and #113 have both achieved one 6t^{h}place and are therefore tied under Rule 10. A third visit to Rule 11 to break a tie.

Well here we are at last Rule 11:

• #115 and #116 for 1^{st} and 2^{nd} place

• #111 and #118 for 4^{th} and 5^{th} place

• #112 and #113 for 6^{th} and 7^{th} place

**DO NOT FORGET**. We are now treating the two dances with five judges each as a single dance with ten judges.**The majority whilst in Rule 11 is 6**- We have to allocate 1
^{st}place. Inspecting the 1^{st}place marks for #115 and #116 show a total of 4 and 2 respectively. There is no majority and 1^{st}place cannot be awarded. We move to “2^{nd}and higher” place marks. Both couples have a total of 6 “2^{nd}and higher” place marks. They are still tied. Summing these 6 place marks gives a sum of 8 for #115 and 10 for #116. By virtue of the lower sum #115 is awarded 1^{st}place and #116 is awarded 2^{nd}place. - We must now consider #111 and #118 for 4
^{th}place. Inspecting the total of “4^{th}and higher” place marks for each we find that #111 has a total of 4 place marks and #118 has a total of 5. Neither of these represents a majority. We now inspect the “5^{th}and higher” place marks. #111 has a total of 7 “5^{th}and higher” place marks and #118 has a total of 6. By virtue of the larger majority #111 is awarded 4^{th}place and #118 gets 5^{th}place. - We finally move to #112 and #113 to allocate 6
^{th}place. Inspecting “6^{th}and higher” place marks for each, shows a total of 4 “6^{th}and higher” place marks for #112 and 5 for #113. Yet again neither of these is a majority. Considering the “7^{th}and higher” place marks, #112 has a total of 7 and #113 a total of 5. Both of these are a majority. The greater majority for #112 gets them 6^{th}place and #113 gets 7^{th}place.

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